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12 matches found for 'encodings'

Comparison Charts of File Storage Formats

Big Data Encodings These encodings are often used with HDFS or some other distributed file system. Since the data can be as large as terabytes or petabytes, it is crucial to encode files in a space optimal way and also allow themselves to be read or written in an optimal way.

Misconceptions of ASCII and Unicode

... which is the process of converting the code points into bits and bytes. There are many Unicode encodings, such as UCS-2 which will store every code point into two bytes. Or UCS-4, which stores every code point into four bytes.

Machine Learning Basics

Supervised Learning In supervised learning, we take some data and predict an output in a pre-defined structure. There are two categories: Regression: When a function is given some input variables, what is the continuous output? i.

Python String Tricks - Performance considerations

If a string is changed to become bigger, consider trying to find the maximum size of the final string early on in a quick pass (strive for \(O(n)\)) Consider working from the tail of the string and iterating backwards if, say, 1 character needs to be replaced with 2.

Useful Links

This is a personal list of useful resources for improving web stacks, frameworks, development, UX, whatever that I come across! Software Engineering The Absolute Minimum Every Software Developer Absolutely, Positively Must Know About Unicode and Character Sets (No Excuses!) Encryption vs.

Decode number of ways

Problem A message containing letters from A-Z can be encoded into numbers using the following mapping: 'A' -> "1" 'B' -> "2" ... 'Z' -> "26" To decode an encoded message, all the digits must be grouped then mapped back into letters using the reverse of the mapping above (there may be multiple ways).

Data stores in Software Architectures

Use Cases There are many ways to store your data. In this article we'll walk through some examples of data storage in common system designs. Reminder: There is no single best storage choice and they may vary heavily depending on things such as access patterns and scale.

Web Development 101

HTTP vs. HTTPS HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It typically runs on TCP port 80. It is a protocol for sending data through browsers in the form of webpages and such. One major flaw with HTTP is that it is vulnerable to man in the middle attacks.

Storing passwords into a database

Don'ts Don'ts Don't put raw passwords in the database Don't put encoded passwords in the database (i.e. Base64) Don't put simple hashed passwords in the database (i.e. MD5, SHA-256) Whys For obvious reasons, putting raw passwords means that the DBA or anyone who has access to the database can steal the passwords.


Authentication Authentication means to verify who you are. Basic Auth Sensitive data required for login is encoded with Base64. Base64 is very easy to decode. Not recommended and probably the least secure authentication method, but easy to implement.

Design Concepts

In this article, I want to go over some fundamental design concepts that are useful for coming up with system design. Requirements Functional Requirements Describes specific behaviors i.e. If a URL is generated, it is composed of a Base64 encoded alias Non-functional Requirements Describes architectural requirements i.

Add SSL certificates to a website

Having a SSL certificate will enforce visitors to connect to a website via the HTTPS protocol, which runs on port 443. The server and the visitor will communicate and transmit encrypted data under this protocol.